There’s an easy answer to this question, but if you replace c) 60% with 0%, then you get a liar paradox, a Gödel-type statement — it has no numerical answer and can only be evaluated outside its terms.
Gödel, btw, once proved Anselm’s ontological argument, the argument that proves god exists. His version, so far as I can tell, removes all modality in Anselm’s argument, and I think that’s why it works. It’s a complicated version, but I think that even extremely simple, non modal versions work too, e.g., if “god” by definition is that which nothing is greater, then whatever is greatest is that thing. This version works for any model in which there is at least one object. So if nothing exists, then it doesn’t prove anything, but since something patently exists, we can safely assume that there is a greatest thing. (more…)